An alcoholic beverage is a drink that typically contains 3% – 40% ethanol (commonly called alcohol). Alcoholic beverages are divided into three classes: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages).
  • Strong alcohol beverages
  • Wine
  • Beer
Modern industrial technology for production of ethyl alcohol from food raw material comprises the following steps:
  • Preparation and grinding starchy raw materials – grain (primarily – rye, wheat), potatoes, corn, and so on. N.
  • Fermentation. At this stage, the enzymatic cleavage of starch to fermentable sugars. Used for this purpose, recombinant preparations of alpha-amylase produced by bioengineered – glyukamilaza, Amilosubtilin.
  • Fermentation. Thanks to the yeast fermentation of sugars accumulate in Brahe alcohol.
  • Bragorektifikation. Carried out on the accelerating columns.
Fermentation (tzh. Digestion, fermentation) – “This is a metabolic process in which ATP is regenerated, and the cleavage products of the organic substrate can serve as both a donor and acceptor of hydrogen.” Fermentation – is anaerobic (derived without oxygen) decomposition metabolic nutrient molecules, such as glucose. In the words of Louis Pasteur, “fermentation – a life without oxygen.” Most types of fermentation is carried microorganisms – obligate or facultative anaerobes. Fermentation not release all the available energy in the molecule, so the intermediate fermentation products can be used in hodekletochnogo respiration.
  • The term fermentation is also used in a broader sense, for rapid microbial growth in an appropriate medium. When used in this sense, does not distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.
Fermentation is often used for cooking or preserving food. Speaking of the fermentation is usually meant the fermentation of sugar (conversion of it in alcohol) using yeast but, for example, in the production of yoghurt use other types of fermentation.
Using human fermentation usually involves the use of certain microbial species and strains. Wines sometimes improve mutual process using fermentation.